Philippine Native Chickens and Itik PINAS
What you need to know about the data available in the Philippine Native Chicken and Itik PINAS Information System
The project entitled ‘Development of Philippine Native Chicken and Itik PINAS Breed Information System’ is a DOST-PCAARRD funded effort which aims to provide accessible information source regarding selected Philippine Native Chicken and Itik PINAS Breeds.
The project aims to highlight characteristics and performance of Philippine native chickens and duck improved and kept by partner institutions such as Department of Agriculture-Ubay Stock Farm (Boholano), Bicol University College of Agriculture and Forestry (Camarines), West Visayas State University (Darag), Western Mindanao State University (ZamPen) and the Bureau of Animal Industry-National Swine and Poultry Research and Development Center (Itik PINAS) through a web-based information system.
Data collected include the following:
- Plumage Color
- Plumage Pattern
- Hackle Color
- Earlobe Color
- Shank Color
- Iris Color
- Skin Color
- Beak Color
- Body Carriage
- Type of Comb
- Bill Color
- Bean Pattern
- Neck Markings
- Body Weight
- Body Length
- Chest Circumference
- Wing Span
- Shank Length
- Neck Length
- Egg Production
- Fertility and Hatchability
- Egg Quality
Summary Profile of the Philippine Native Chicken and Itik PINAS
Philippine Native Chickens are usually named after their locality. Boholano, Camarines and ZamPen are from the provinces of Bohol, Bicol and Zamboanga Peninsula, respectively, while Darag is the native chicken of Panay Island, Western Visayas.
On the other hand, Itik PINAS is a product of selection and maintained at the Bureau of Animal Industry - National Swine and Poultry Research and Development Center, Tiaong, Quezon. These Philippine native chickens and ducks have identifiable characteristics that make each genetic group unique.
In this information system, Boholano, Camarines, Darag, and ZamPen and Itik PINAS (IP) Itim and IP Khaki are described. Their physical characteristics, both qualitative and quantitative features, as well as their production performance are discussed below.
Philippine Native Chickens
Philippine Native Chickens – Rooster. Unique to Camarines is its yellow-orange plumage with barred pattern. Darag and Boholano roosters have predominantly red plumage, though if in terms of shank color, Darag roosters have gray while most Boholano roosters have white shanks. ZamPen has red hackle, but the feathers in the body are predominantly black. All roosters, except ZamPen which has pea comb, have single comb type. In addition, ZamPen’s distinguishable feature is its body carriage – it stands upright like a royal!
Philippine Native Chickens – Hens. Camarines and Darag both have brown feathers. In the locality, the color of Boholono native chickens are called “pula”. ZamPen hens are the easiest to identify, because it stands upright showing off its black plumage. Boholano, and most Darag and Camarines hens have laced plumage pattern.
Egg production. Native chickens start to lay eggs at 20 - 22 weeks of age. In terms of egg production of each hen per year, Camarines produce 62 eggs, ZamPen produce 105 eggs and Darag produces the highest number of eggs at 110. Boholano breeds, on average, produce 62 eggs per hen per year.
The average egg weight of ZamPen tends to be the heaviest at 43.6 g each, followed by eggs of Darag at 41.36 g. The egg from Camarines and Boholano are both usually at 40 g.
Fertility and Hatchability. In terms of fertility, the Darag and ZamPen hens have the highest rate at 81-83% on average. This was followed by the Camarines breed at 69% and the Boholano at 63%. Hatchability of eggs from native chickens range from 70-77%.
Egg quality. All eggs are cream-colored and ovoid-shaped. Other egg quality traits such as length, width, shape index, albumen height and weight, yolk color and weight, shell weight and thickness, and haugh unit were also included in the database.
Philippine Native Chicken Breeds
Philippine Native Ducks (Itik PINAS)
History of Itik PINAS
In 2008, the Bureau of Animal Industry through the National Swine and Poultry Research and Development Center (BAI-NSPRDC) in collaboration with Livestock Development Council (LDC), Institute of Animal Science (IAS) - University of the Philippines Los Banos and Duck Industry Association of the Philippines Incorporated (DIAPI), initiated the selection and breeding of the egg type Philippine Mallard duck. A total of 2,000 hatching eggs of Philippine Mallard duck (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus L.) were obtained from three duck farms in provinces of Batangas, Pampanga, and Quezon and set for incubation to produce the foundation stocks.
In 2012, the “Development of Sustainable Breeder Philippine Mallard Duck (PMD) Itik Production System Project” was proposed with the purpose of genetic improvement and development of the signature Philippine duck breed. The project was funded by the Philippine Council on Agriculture, Aquatic and Natural Resources Research and Development (PCAARRD) and implemented by BAI-NSPRDC at Tiaong, Quezon.
The Itik PINAS is a breeding true-to-type Philippine Mallard ducks selected for high egg production, predictable performance, and consistent product quality. The selection criteria includes the replacement stock coming from the top 50% egg producing family at 40 weeks of age, with egg weight between 65-70 grams. At 18 weeks of age, body weight is approximately 1.0 - 1.3 kg and plumage color and pattern should either be black or khaki.
The Itik PINAS (IP) Itim and IP Khaki lines were developed due to the high preference of stakeholders on the plumage black and brown color. Currently, both male and female black with white ‘bib’ in their neck and IP Khaki have brown plumage color with uniform body weight at 18 weeks of age, producing the egg size suited for processing of balut and with increased egg production.
The project adopted the pyramidal structure of breeding program to distribute the Itik PINAS to the stakeholders. In this structure, there are relatively small number of nucleus breeders which produce purebred stocks of IP Itim and IP Khaki for a larger number of multiplier farms who in turn produce these animals for commercial or small scale duck raisers.
The two Itik PINAS (IP) lines have distinct plumage, neck, bill, skin color and shanks from each other. IP Itim has black plumage color with white bib, and black bean color. On the other hand, the IP Khaki has brown plumage, plain neck and and black bean color. IP Khaki drakes have green bills, while ducks have black bills. Both IP lines have brown eye color, dark orange or dark brown shanks, and are slightly upright.
IP Itim tend to be slightly heavier and longer with wider wingspan than IP Khaki. On the other hand, IP Khaki has wider chest circumference and longer shanks than IP Itim. Neck length are comparable between IP Itim and IP Khaki.
Egg production per duck per year is 257 eggs, with average egg weight of approximately 65 grams. IP ducks start to lay eggs at about 22-23 weeks of age. Both IP Itim and IP Khaki have white ovoid eggs.
Philippine Native Duck (Itik PINAS) Breeds
Directory of Boholano Breeder Farms
Directory of Camarines Breeder Farms
Directory of Darag Breeder Farms
Directory of ZamPen Breeder Farms
Directory of Itik Pinas Breeder Farms
Records included in the information system were therefore collected by our partner institutions.